fossils at a museum

Evolution is a unifying principle in biology. It is the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time. It can broadly be categorized into two types based on the scale. These are macroevolution and microevolution.

There are various types of pieces of evidence as far as evolution is concerned. You can learn some of these at teesside university. These provide evidence for and can allow us to reconstruction macroevolutionary events. Here are some of the proofs of evolution.


Darwin thought of evolution as a decent modification, a process whereby species change and give rise to new ones over many generations. He proposed that the evolutionary history of life forms a branching tree with levels in which all species can be traced to an ancient common ancestor. In the tree, more closely related groups of species have more recent common ancestors, and every group shares features which were present in its last common ancestor. This idea can be used to work backward and figure out how organisms are related based on shared features.

Molecular Biology

Like structural homologies, similarities between biological molecules can also reflect shared evolutionary ancestry. All living organisms at the most basic level share the same DNA, genetic codes, basic gene expression, and molecular building blocks. These shared features suggest that living things are descended from a common ancestor and that the ancestor had DNA as its genetic material, expressed its genes by translation and transcription and used the genetic code. Present-day organisms share these features since they were inherited from the ancestor.


Geographical distribution of organisms on earth follows patterns which are best explained by evolution, in combination with tectonic plates movement over geological time. For instance, broad groupings of organisms which had already evolved before the breakup of the subcontinental Pangea tend to be distributed worldwide. In contrast broad groupings which evolved after the breakup appear uniquely in smaller regions on earth. For example, there are unique groups of animals and plants on the southern and northern continents which can be traced to the split of the Pangea.

Fossil Records

Fossils are the preserved remains of previously living organisms or their traces, dating from distant past. The fossil record is not complete or unbroken, most organisms never fossilize, and humans rarely find even those that do. Nonetheless, the fossils which humans have collected offer unique insights time evolution over long timescales.

The fossils are usually contained in rocks which build up in layers known as strata. The strata provide some sort of timeline. The layers near the top are newer while those near the bottom older. Fossils found in the different strata at the same site are ordered by their positions and reference strata with unique features can be used to compare the ages of the fossils across locations. Scientists can roughly date fossils using radiometric dating, a process which measures the radioactive decay of elements.

These are some of the pieces of evidence that have been used to prove the theory of evolution. They show that organisms had a common ancient ancestor. Such information is available in archaeological sites.

Airplane taking off

Japan is one of the best places to visit not only in Asia but also in the world. With its multi-layered culture combined with ancient traditions, the country presents tourists with incredible sights and things to explore when on vacation in the country. Boasting of friendly people, awe-inspiring landscape, and incredible food, Japan offers tourists with a memorable holiday experience. The country is a heritage of endless discovery, and as such, you can spend your whole life exploring the extraordinary expanse of the country. Here are the top things to see and do when in Japan:


Japanese woman in Kimono  Shibuya Crossing

Featured in popular movies like the Tokyo Drift, the Shibuya crossing is undoubtedly one of the most impressive and iconic sights to see in Tokyo. The bustling intersection bears high foot traffic that average around 2.8 million people every day. The best time to watch massive foot traffic crossing the intersection is during peak hours. While at the crossing, you can capture a perfect snap amidst the sea of people. Near the crossing, there are some of the best cutting-edge fashion houses and the legendary Shibuya 109 mall. As such, you can shop for your favorite Japanese wear during your visit to the crossing.



Located in the expansive Seto Inland Sea, Naoshima is an indigenous island that offers a rustic getaway for tourists who wish to sample the best of Japan’s culture and heritage. With its numerous modern museums, sculptures, and architecture, an island is a great place for honeymoon and family union vacations. The Benesse House, Lee Ufan Museum and Chichu Art Museum are some of the popularly frequented spots in the island. The deep blue waters surrounding the island are perfect for water activities such as swimming and water sports.



Widely considered to be Tokyo’s main cultural draw, the district boasts of the globally recognized Senso-Ji Temple and several other small temples. These historical treasures are rich in vast cultural experiences from all over Japan including ancient and pre-war cultures. For people who have a keen interest in Japan’s history as well as the cultural developments that have taken place in Japan over the years. The best thing about Asakusa is that the Nakamise shopping block is located close to the temples and hence you can shop while touring the temples. Sample some of the best traditional Japan cuisines in the eateries located in Asakusa.


Japanese bottlesMount Fuji

The Fujiyama boasts of having the finest and most perfect volcano in the world. Regarded as the holy mountain by the locals, the Fuji is a sight to behold especially at dusk during the fall season. Tourists are only allowed to climb the mountain from July to September as this season is when the weather is right for scaling the steep mountain. The breathtaking rocky peaks of the Fuji are premier hiking grounds especially for tourists traveling as groups or as a family. The challenges that climbers encounter on their way to the peak of the mountain provide a memorable experience.

Like any other top destination across the globe, you cannot exhaust visiting and exploring everything that Japan has to offer. While in the country, plan your travel itinerary well so that you have sufficient to explore and see any of the top destinations you plan on visiting.

people doing community service

Hiking is the classic outdoor experience that is exhilarating, exciting and fun. Hiking tests your stamina, endurance, and power. Unfortunately, there is always a caveat in everything that seems good. On looking at hiking reports from rangers around the country, a different side of the activity manifests. Just as with any other outdoor activity, hiking has its fair share of risk. At times there are risks that are beyond our control. However, we can minimize our exposure to risk by carrying the right gear and walking cautiously. Here are five tips on how to arrive at a safe Hiking Trip Preparation plan.


Laptop inside tentDo Some Background Research of the Trail


Preparing for a hike can be daunting if you do not know what to expect or where to go. Available on the internet are good hiking destination suggestions. Other materials that recommend cool hiking trail destination are maps or guidebooks. Alternatively, you can get a first-hand recommendation from local hiking clubs where you will be introduced to like-minded hikers. They are a great source of encouragement and knowledge on how to become an ultimate hiker.

Physical Preparation

Hiking is physically demanding to the body. When described it seems like it’s simple walking but this changes once you add a backpack as you move through rough terrain. The experience can be very exhausting to any first timer. For anyone starting to exercise, regularly consult with your doctor before adopting the new hobby. Let the doctor access whether there are any potential health risk exposures. To develop your strength, agility, and flexibility you can briefly take some yoga classes. They provide a good opportunity for stretching the body muscles, particularly the abs, arms, and back. On the bright side, hiking helps in weight loss and stress reliever.

Have a Plan

Before going out on the hiking trip, pass information on the destination of the trip and what your fellow hikers should expect. Leaving the trip plan with a loved one is wise. In the trip plan, have the names of those accompanying you. Include the time and date of departure and return. Mention the route you will follow marking out the hiking route. You can mention the equipment you will carry and a contact number if you do not return.

Hike with a Friend

Solo hiking is adventurous. However, it’s always best to move as a pack. A team is much safer than an individual who will not have any assistance when they get into trouble. Most outdoor hiking organizations recommend hikers to venture as a group. This way when one gets injured, he has someone to remain behind with while the others go out to seek help. Avoid hiking in large groups as this is dangerous to the natural environment.


drinking shake teaAttire

Your apparel decides your level of safety. Advances in clothing technology have created secure environments where the garments offer better thermal regulation and comfort to the user. Cotton clothing might not be recommended as it dries off very slowly when exposed to wet environments. This results in heat loss creating a case for hypothermia. Modern hiking attire is light in weight, resists odor bacteria, repels insects and protects the sun from harmful rays.